The Canon EOS (Electro-Optical System) autofocus35 mmfilm and
digitalSLR camera system was introduced in 1987 with the Canon EOS 650 and is still in production as Canon's current
dSLR system. The acronym EOS was chosen for Eos, the Titan Goddess of dawn in Greek mythology, and is often pronounced as a word (i.e., EE-oss), although some spell out the letters. There is no officially correct pronunciation, as both seem logical.
It competes primarily with the Nikon F series and its successors, as well as autofocus SLR systems from Olympus Corporation, Pentax, Sony/Minolta, and Panasonic/Leica. In most countries, EOS cameras have the largest market share of SLR cameras.
At the heart of the system is the EF lens mount, which replaced the previous FD lens mount.
The bayonet-style EF lens mount is at the center of the EOS camera system. Breaking compatibility with the earlier FD mount, it was designed with no mechanical linkages between moving parts in the lens and in the camera. The aperture and focus are controlled via electrical contacts, with motors in the lens itself. This was similar in many ways to Nikon's 1983 F3AF (and to many of Nikon's more recent autofocus lenses), although other manufacturers including Contax (with its G series of interchangeable-lens 35 mm rangefinder cameras) and Olympus (with its Four Thirds System) have since embraced this type of direct drive system.
The bayonet-style mount
14mm F2.8 L lens
TS-E 24mm f/3.5L lens
50mm F1.4 lens
85mm F1.2 L lens
100mm F2.8 macro lens
135mm F2 L lens
Canon EF 400mm lens
16-35 F2.8 L lens
24-70 F2.8 L lens
70-200mm F2.8 L lens
70-300mm F4.5-5.6 IS DO lens
EOS flash system
Main article: Canon EOS flash system
The flash system in the EOS cameras has gone through a number of evolutions since its first implementation. The basic EOS flash system was actually developed not for the first EOS camera, but rather for the last high-end FD-mount manual-focus camera, the T90, launched in 1986. This was the first Canon camera with
through-the-lens (TTL) flash metering, although other brands had been metering that way for some time. It also introduced the A-TTL (Advanced TTL) system for better flash exposure in program mode, using infrared preflashes to gauge subject distance.
This system was carried over into the early EOS cameras wholesale. A-TTL largely fell out of favor, and was replaced by E-TTL (Evaluative TTL). This used a pre-flash for advanced metering, and used the
autofocus system to judge where the main subject was for more accurate exposure. E-TTL II, which was an enhancement in the camera's firmware only, replaced E-TTL from 2004.
Canon Speedlite-brand flashes have evolved alongside the cameras. They are capable of wired and wireless multi-flash setups, the latter using visible or infrared pulses to synchronise.
As of 2007, Canon has released no fewer than 40 EOS SLR camera models, starting with the introduction of the EOS 650 in 1987. In the 1990s, Canon worked with
Kodak to produce digital camera bodies, starting with the EOS DCS 3 in 1995. The first digital EOS SLR camera wholly designed and manufactured by Canon is the EOS D30, released in 2000.
Canon has also released two EOS cameras designed to use the APS film format, the EOS IX and the EOS IX Lite.
There is also a manual-focus EOS camera, the EOS EF-M. It comes with all the automatic and manual exposure functions but lacks autofocus. However, it comes equipped with a split-screen/microprism focusing screen for precise manual focusing.
Through the tracking of eyeball movements, EOS cameras equipped with eye-controlled focusing (ECF) are able to choose the appropriate autofocus point based on where the user is looking in the viewfinder frame. ECF comes especially useful in sports photography where the subject may shift its position in the frame rapidly.
ECF is a function that is usually either loved or hated. Some users feel that it is not reliable enough for common use. Others report that they are able to use it reliably. Much of this depends on the user. Eyeglasses can also reduce its accuracy for some.
EOS cameras equipped with ECF are the EOS A2E (U.S. model names are shown; see the table below for equivalents in other countries), EOS Elan IIE, EOS IXe, EOS-3, EOS Elan 7E, and EOS Elan 7NE.
Quick control dial
Quick Control Dial on EOS 100Most prosumer and professional level EOS cameras feature a large quick control dial (QCD) on the camera back. Allowing easy operation of the camera using the thumb, the QCD is used for quick access to often-used functions that may otherwise require a more complicated procedure of button-presses and dial-clicks.
Cameras equipped with the QCD can easily be operated with one hand (forefinger on the main dial, thumb on the QCD) without taking the eye off the viewfinder.
Some useful functions that a QCD is programmed to do include setting exposure compensation, setting of aperture in manual exposure mode and scrolling of images and menus in digital EOS cameras.
Multi-point autofocus system
The top-line EOS cameras have up to 45 autofocus (AF) points, the most in their class, until superseded by Nikon's D3 and D300 digital SLR cameras with 51 autofocus points. This increases the chances of a sharply-focused photograph in situations where the subject travels across the frame at high speeds, e.g. sports, birds. The number, type, features and performance of autofocus point array systems is likely to continue to evolve.
Having so many AF points also helps relieve the photographer from having to use the 'lock focus and recompose' method of framing a photograph, since the subject will most probably have been picked up by one or more of the AF points. Even though the camera is intelligent enough to select the correct AF point(s) most of the time, EOS cameras equipped with a multi-point AF system will still allow the photographer to manually select an AF point.
EOS-3, EOS-1v, and the EOS-1D family feature a 45-point AF system. With the exception of EOS 1000D, all Canon DSLRs introduced since late 2005, starting from the EOS 20D and the Rebel XTi (400D) feature a nine-point AF system in a diamond-shape formation. The EOS 5D, released in 2005, takes this 9-point AF system a step further by introducing six more 'invisible' AF points (i.e. not user-selectable) in helping the camera acquire focus faster during subject tracking. Older Canon DSLRs usually have seven-point AF.
For the earlier generation of 45-point AF system, the central column of 1 or 2 sensors (7 in all up to EOS-1Ds Mk II, EOS-1D Mk II N) are cross-type sensors, which offer a high degree of accuracy. The latest announced EOS-1D Mk III and EOS-1Ds Mk III have 19 cross-type sensors for higher accuracy, as well as placing the cross-type sensors to complement the Rule of Thirds.
Target Market Segment
Typically Common features
Pentamirror type viewfinder, lighter and cheaper build than other
sized sensor on digital models.
3- or 4-digit model number.
E.g. EOS 350D, EOS 300X, EOS 1000D
Rebel (used in North America since 1990)
E.g. EOS Digital Rebel XT, EOS Rebel T2
Kiss (used in Japan since 1993)
E.g. EOS Kiss Digital N, EOS Kiss 7
Higher frame rate and more rugged construction than contemporary
"entry-level" models. Partial weather sealing and
sized sensor on digital models.
2-digit model number
E.g. EOS 33V, EOS 40D
E.g. EOS Elan 7N (DSLRs share the same naming scheme as
More rugged/waterproofed build than premium models, larger build
with vertical grip, 100%
viewfinder field of view, faster performance.
APS-H sized sensors on 1D models and 35mm "Full-frame
digital SLR" sensors on 1Ds models.
model number 1
E.g. EOS-1D Mark II, EOS-1V,
EOS-1Ds Mark III
Same as International
Same as International
This is a list of the 35 mm and APS Canon EOS models in order of introduction:
EOS 630 QD
EOS 10 QD
EOS 700 QD
EOS Rebel/Rebel S
EOS 1000F QD
EOS 1000 QD
EOS 10S commemorative kit
EOS 10 QD
EOS 100 QD
EOS Rebel II/SII
EOS 1000FN QD
EOS 1000S QD
EOS 5 QD
EOS Rebel XS
EOS Rebel X
EOS-1N/1N HS/1N DP
EOS-1N/1N HS/1N DP
EOS Elan II/IIe
EOS Rebel G
New EOS Kiss
EOS IX E
EOS IX Lite
EOS IX 7
EOS IX 50
EOS Rebel 2000
EOS Kiss III
EOS Elan 7/7e
EOS Kiss III L
EOS Rebel XS N
Canon EOS 66
EOS Rebel Ti
EOS Kiss 5
EOS Rebel GII
EOS Rebel K2
EOS Kiss Lite
EOS Elan 7N/7NE
EOS Rebel T2
EOS Kiss 7
Prior to the introduction of the EOS D30 digital SLR, Canon in collaboration with
Kodak produced four digital SLRs by modifying the internals of the EOS-1N film SLR. These four digital SLRs had a Canon EOS body and As a result can accept EF
lenses, while the image sensor and electronics were designed and built by Kodak.
The four cameras were:
EOS D2000/Kodak DCS520
EOS D6000/Kodak DCS560
The following digital SLRs, starting from the D30, had bodies and sensors completely designed and manufactured by Canon (except for the Canon EOS-1D, which uses a Panasonic sourced CCD sensor).
Unlike most other digital SLR manufacturers, Canon digital SLRs are equipped
with a CMOS sensor (with the exception of EOS-1D that uses a CCD sensor). Canon
design and manufacture their own CMOS sensors
Canon Digital SLR Cameras
EOS 300D/Digital Rebel/Kiss Digital (discontinued)